July 20, 2020

Introduction to the Poem: Structure and Technique Cligès is a poem by the mediæval French poet Chrétien de Troyes, dating from the late 12th Century AD (c 1176).  It is the third of Chrétien’s five Arthurian romances; Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (Lancelot, or The Knight of the Cart); Érec et Énide (Erec…

The Robert de Boron Cycle image
June 22, 2020

An Outline of the Cycle’s Contents The Robert Cycle, or Robert de Boron’s Cycle, is also known as La Grant Estoire dou Graal (The Grand History of the Grail), or Roman du Graal (Romance of the Grail), or Livre du Graal (Book of the Grail), or Le Petit Cycle du Graal (The Lesser Cycle of…

The Faerie Queene
May 25, 2020

Welcome to our resource and summary of Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene. This is an alegorical poem that emerged in the late sixteenth century, and remains one of the largest poems in the English language. Edmund Spenser was a contemporary of other great writers like William Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, but despite the overflow of talent in…

A statue of Saint Carannog
April 20, 2020

The Saint’s Name and the Uncertainties of the Time-Period Carannog is most commonly known as a 6th-Century AD Welsh abbot, confessor, and saint.  In addition to Carannog/Carantog (in Welsh), his name is variously represented as Cairnech/Cairnach/C(h)ernach/Cernath/Carnath (Irish), Caredec/Karanteg (Breton), Carantocus/Carantacus (Latin), and anglicised as Carantock (among other English variations, such as Carantoc and Carentoc).  Cairnach,…

St. Padarn's Church
April 6, 2020

Here begins the life of Saint Padarn, bishop. Overview of Padarn and his Vita Padarn(us) (Paternus) was an early 6th Century AD consecrated British Christian abbot-bishop.  This British Padarn and Saint Paternus of Avranches in Normandy appear to be the same person.  By tradition, it is said that Paternus of Avranches was born in Poitiers,…

Plestin les Grèves_ Église Saint Efflam
March 23, 2020

The Scant Historical Framework of Efflam’s Life Saint Efflam(m) is semi-legendary.  According to the Monks of Ramsgate (in the “Efflam” entry for the Book of Saints, 1921), Efflam(m) was born in Britain and died in Brittany.  His feast day is 6 November.  He was the son of an Irish king.  Born in AD 448, Efflam(m)…

saint cadoc windows
March 9, 2020

Vita’s Composition Date, Author, and Purpose The story of Saint Cadoc is told in Vita Sancti Cadoci, written by Lifris of Llancarfan probably not much before AD 1086.  The text is Latin, and it was “written at Llancarfan” to honour the house and confirm “its endowments”, says John Strong Perry Tatlock in July 1939.  Consequently,…

A procession of saints
February 24, 2020

Gwyddno’s Journey, and Legenda’s Prologue Legenda Sancti Goeznovii (Legend of Saint Goeznovius) is the hagiography (writing of a saint’s life) of Goeznovius, who died c AD 675 according to one account but more probably flourished in the Sixth Century, according to Geoffrey Ashe.  Goeznovius was a Bishop of Léon in Brittany, who is venerated as…

text and artwork from historia regum britanniae
February 17, 2020

Welcome to our article on De Gestis Britonum, or Historia Regum Britanniae, otherwise known as the Deeds of Britons, or History of Kings of Britain Introduction to and Value of the Text Originally called De Gestis Britonum (On Deeds of Britons), Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain) is a quasi-pseudo-historical chronicle of British history. …

the historicity of King Arthur
February 3, 2020

The historical man behind the literature’s king was probably a warlord existing in the period between AD 450 and AD 650. His name, Artorius, derives perhaps from a Roman family, because it is extremely rare in Welsh sources: we owe a Welsh brief, Annals of Wales, for the first mention with two absolute dates about…