An Early Welsh Poem on the Battle of Cat(t)raeth/Cattraith. Y Guotoðin is the earliest surviving Welsh/Brythonic/Brittonic poem. The manuscript includes a rubric (a heading on the document) which translates “This is Y Gododdin: Aneirin sang it”.
Name and Location
The name Gododdin is the Modern Welsh form of the name as it appears in Old Welsh: Guotoðin (Guotodin), and is said to derive from the tribal name Votadini (as recorded in Greek and Roman sources).
The Gododdin were a Brythonic/Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd (Old North) in what is now modern south-east Scotland and north-east England, during the sub-Roman period (AD 410 to AD 590). They are descendants of the Votadini.
Author, Attitude, and Description of Poem
Aneirin, the 6th century Welsh/Brythonic poet/bard, is reputed to have been one of a handful of survivors from the battle of Cat(t)raeth/Cattraith (occurring c AD 600, in what is now Catterick, North Yorkshire). This battle inspired his epic poem, Y Guotoðin (The Gododdin). He wrote about the defeat of the Britons against the “Saxons” (specifically, the Angles of Deira and Bernicia).
One of the early consequences of that battle was the cutting off of the kingdoms in the north from those in the south-west (as stated by Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson, in his The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish Poem). This poem seems to report on a failed attempt to regain some of that lost ground; thereby making it a series of elegies to the men of the Brythonic kingdom of Guotoðin and to its allies (all of those who died in the battle).
Aneirin is critical in some places of the rash behaviour of the soldiers; in other places, he mentions knights familiar to us from Arthur’s court: Peredur (Perceval), Owain (Yvain), and Taliesin. In fact, there is a reference to Arthur as a mighty warrior of the recent past.
Aneirin was a contemporary of Taliesin (who flourished during the 6th century AD) and Myrddin (the son of Morkin, born c AD 540). Aneirin was the son of Caw, lord of Cwm Cawlwyd, or Cowllwg, a region in the North, which, as we learn from a Life of Gildas in the monastery of Fleury (published by Johannes a Bosco), this encompassed Arecluta or Strathclyde.
The alternate parentage for Aneirin has Dynod Bwr as his father. This may point to two Aneirins, or it may not. Genealogies of that era are sometimes confused, at best.
Aneirin is believed to have been a bard or court poet in one of the Cumbric kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, probably that of Guotoðin itself. He is specifically said to be a poet in Urien’s court (Urien being typically of Rheged, although still of the Old North; Rheged itself was just south of the Guotoðin). Nennius (in his Historia Brittonum, written c AD 828) mentions Aneirin under the name “Neirin” (in a section which also names the poet Taliesin), and from the 17th century onward, Aneirin’s name was often incorrectly spelled “Aneurin”.
Y Guotoðin is traditionally ascribed to Aneirin, and survives only in one manuscript, the Llyfr Aneirin (Book of Aneirin). While this manuscript dates to the 13th century, it is generally agreed that it preserves a much older text.
Original or Earliest Date of the Poem
The distance between the manuscript and the supposed period of composition means caution is important.
The earliest or original date of Y Guotoðin has been the subject of debate among scholars since the early 19th century AD. If the poem was composed soon after the battle, it must predate AD 638, when the fall of Din Eidyn (modern-day Edinburgh) was recorded in the reign of Oswy king of Bernicia, an event which is thought to have meant the collapse of the kingdom of the Gododdin. If it is a later composition, the poem is usually considered to be that of the 9th or 10th centuries AD, although some scholars consider that it could be from the 11th century AD.
The Arthur Connection
Y Guotoðin tells how a force of 300 (or 363) chosen warriors were assembled, some from as far afield as Pictland and Gwynedd. After a year of feasting at Din Eidyn they attacked Cat(t)raeth/Cattraith.
After several days of fighting against overwhelming odds, nearly all the warriors are killed. Many personal names are given, but only two are recorded in other sources.
One of the warriors was Cynon ap Clydno Eiddin who is mentioned in old pedigrees. Another personal name that is recorded in other sources is Arthur. If this mention of Arthur formed part of the original poem, this could be the earliest reference to Arthur as a paragon of bravery. In stanza 99, the poet praises one of the warriors, Gwawrddur (as in A O H Jarman’s 1998 edition of Y Gododdin: Britain’s Oldest Heroic Poem):
He fed black ravens on the rampart of a fortress
Though he was no Arthur
Among the powerful ones in battle
In the front rank, Gwawrddur was a palisade
Here is Jarman’s earlier 1988 translation of that passage:
He fed black ravens on the wall of the fortress,
although he was not Arthur.
Among those powerful in feats
In the front rank, a pallisade, Gwawrddur.
In lines 1241 and 1242 of Ifor William’s edition, it is said of a certain warrior hero Gwawrddur that:
“he glutted black ravens on the rampart on the wall of the fort of the city,
although he was not Arthur”
Conclusions about Arthur?
There seems to be a close agreement in the translations. Gwawrddur slew many and did heroic deeds, so that he was second only to Arthur as a commendable example of martial valour. Arthur is treated here as a famous historical chief. Aneirin might easily have known old men personally who had met Arthur in their boyhood, if the generally accepted dates for Aneirin’s life are correct (born AD 525 in what is now Dumbarton).
Unfortunately, there are interpolations in Y Guotoðin, and it is impossible to prove that this is not one of them. If this reference was in Guotoðin when Aneirin first recited it, then Arthur was already celebrated as a hero by AD 600.
But it is always possible that the phrase “although he was not Arthur” was inserted when the poem came to be written down in the 9th or 10th century (and copied, only to end up in the 13th century Llyfr Aneirin). Otherwise, the historicity of Arthur would be established beyond doubt. Thus being the crowning glory and epitome of the universal celebration of the ideal hero, Arthur, “The Once and Future King”.
The Full Text
You can find an ebook (free) and a paperback (not free) version of the whole text at the following links:
Glyn Hnutu-healh is the primary author for the Circle of Logres: Encyclopædia Arthuriana project. He is a practicing Druí Alchemist, who is degreed in Physics and a long-time fan of Sci-Fi and Fantasy. Glyn consults (among other things) in matters of History, Genealogy, Alchemy, and Physics.